The reason for this is that humans’ voice boxes are unusually low in their throats compared to other animals. In turn, this allows our voices to resonate much more, which allows for us to produce such a wide variety of sounds!

Our brains don’t produce an image the way a video camera works. Instead, the brain constructs a model of the world from the information provided by modules that measure light and shade, edges, curvature and so on. This makes it simple for the brain to paint out the blind spot, the area of your retina where the optic nerve joins, which has no sensors. It also compensates for the rapid jerky movements of our eyes called saccades, giving a false picture of steady vision.

But the downside of this process is that it makes our eyes easy to fool. TV, films and optical illusions work by misleading the brain about what the eye is seeing. This is also why the moon appears much larger than it is and seems to vary in size: the true optical size of the moon is similar to a hole created by a hole punch held at arm’s length.

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If you take a look on a very clear night at the constellation of Andromeda, a little fuzzy patch of light is just visible with the naked eye. If you can make out that tiny blob, you are seeing as far as is humanly possible without technology. Andromeda is the nearest large galaxy to our own Milky Way. But “near” is a relative term in intergalactic space – the Andromeda galaxy is 2.5m light years away. When the photons of light that hit your eye began their journey, there were no human beings. We were yet to evolve. You are seeing an almost inconceivable distance and looking back in time through 2.5m years.

Your DNA includes the genes from at least eight retroviruses. These are a kind of virus that makes use of the cell’s mechanisms for coding DNA to take over a cell. At some point in human history, these genes became incorporated into human DNA. These viral genes in DNA now perform important functions in human reproduction, yet they are entirely alien to our genetic ancestry.

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This accounts for one quarter of all the human body’s bones.

Vaginismus is vaginal tightness causing discomfort, burning, pain, penetration problems, or complete inability to have intercourse. The vaginal tightness results from the involuntary tightening of the pelvic floor, especially the pubococcygeus (PC) muscle group, although the woman may not be aware that this is the cause of her penetration or pain difficulties.

Common Symptoms of Vaginismus include:

  • burning or stinging with tightness during sex 
  • Difficult or impossible penetration, entry pain, uncomfortable insertion of penis
  • Ongoing sexual discomfort or pain following childbirth, yeast/urinary infections, STDs, IC, hysterectomy, cancer and surgeries, rape, menopause, or other issues
  • Ongoing sexual pain of unknown origin, with no apparent cause
  • Difficulty inserting tampons or undergoing a pelvic/gynecological exam
  • Spasms in other body muscle groups (legs, lower back, etc.) and/or halted breathing during attempts at intercourse
  • Avoidance of sex due to pain and/or failure

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Vaginismus can be triggered in both younger and older women, in those with no sexual experience and those with years of experience. Not all women experience vaginismus the same way, and the extensiveness of vaginismus varies:

  • Some women are unable to insert anything at all.
  • Some women are able to insert a tampon and complete a gynecological exam, yet are unable to insert a penis.
  • Others are able to partially insert a penis, although the process is very painful.
  • Some are able to fully insert a penis, but tightness and discomfort interrupt the normal progression from arousal through to orgasm and bring pain instead.
  • Some women are able to tolerate years of uncomfortable intercourse with gradually increasing pain and discomfort that eventually interrupts the sexual experience.
  • Women may also experience years of intermittent difficulty with entry or movement and have to constantly be on their guard to control and relax their pelvic area when it suddenly ‘acts up’.

Painful sex is often the first sign that a woman has vaginismus. The pain occurs only with penetration. It usually, but not always, goes away after withdrawal.

Women have described the pain as feeling too small for a man’s penis. The pain has also been described as a tearing sensation or a feeling like the man is “hitting a wall.”

The causes of vaginismus aren’t fully understood. The condition is considered a sexual dysfunction. It is usually associated with anxiety and fear about having sex. But it’s unclear whether the anxiety is a cause or a consequence of the condition.

Vaginismus is sometimes associated with a history of sexual abuse.

Vaginismus can be primary, meaning it’s something a person has had their whole life. Or it can be secondary, occurring after a period of normal function.

Vaginismus may be called “global,” meaning it occurs in all situations with any object. Or it may be “situational.” That means it happens with one partner but not others — or only with sexual intercourse but not with tampons or exams.

The condition usually begins after the first attempt at having intercourse. It may also develop after periods of stress. The vaginal walls may tighten automatically when sex is painful for any reason, compounding the difficulty.

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 195
04 Mar 13 at 7 pm

artistcompilation:

muscular system and a purposely drawn long neck for shits and giggles

(via scinerds)

artistcompilation:


muscular system and a purposely drawn long neck for shits and giggles
 113
02 Mar 13 at 6 pm

malformalady:

An external fixation device is a surgical treatment used to stabilize and align both bone and soft tissues The device can be adjusted externally to ensure the bones remain in an optimal position during the healing process. This device is commonly used in children and when the skin over the fracture has been damaged.

(via roselacedribs)

malformalady:

An external fixation device is a surgical treatment used to stabilize and align both bone and soft tissues  The device can be adjusted externally to ensure the bones remain in an optimal position during the healing process. This device is commonly used in children and when the skin over the fracture has been damaged.
 1899
23 Feb 13 at 8 pm

staceythinx:

A knitted anatomy lesson by Shanell Papp 

Papp on the project:

To make the work, I borrowed a human skeleton from the university and collected anatomical textbooks. I also managed to track down a mortuary gurney for displaying the work–a mortuary gave me a gurney after a renovation…they were looking to get rid of it since “people are were getting too fat for the gurney.” I also worked in an old hospital turned history museum. I also went to open house day at a local funeral…they gave me a decorative pen. During my graduate studies, I was granted open access to the gross anatomy lab, though I was long finished making LAB/skeleton at this point. I was given access to draw, look around…. It is always funny how specimens are collected and cared for.

(via thenursedawn)